Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi

(June 8 (O.S. May 27), 1837 ?C April 6 (O.S. March 24), 1887; was a Russian painter and art critic. He was an intellectual leader of the Russian democratic art movement in 1860-1880. Kramskoi came from a poor petty-bourgeois family. From 1857 to 1863 he studied at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts; he reacted against academic art and was an initiator of the "revolt of fourteen" which ended with the expulsion from the Academy of a group of its graduates, who organized the Artel of Artists Influenced by the ideas of the Russian revolutionary democrats, Kramskoi asserted the high public duty of the artist, principles of realism, and the moral substance and nationality of art. He became one of the main founders and ideologists of the Company of Itinerant Art Exhibitions (or Peredvizhniki). In 1863-1868 he taught at the drawing school of a society for the promotion of applied arts. He created a gallery of portraits of important Russian writers, scientists, artists and public figures (Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy, 1873, Ivan Shishkin, 1873, Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov, 1876, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, 1879, Sergei Botkin, 1880) in which expressive simplicity of composition and clarity of depiction emphasize profound psychological elements of character. Kramskoi's democratic ideals found their brightest expression in his portraits of peasants, which portrayed a wealth of character-details in representatives of the common people. In one of Kramskoi's most well known paintings, Christ in the Desert (1872, Tretyakov gallery), he continued Alexander Ivanov's humanistic tradition by treating a religious subject in moral Cphilosophical terms. He imbued his image of Christ with dramatic experiences in a deeply psychological and vital interpretation, evoking the idea of his heroic self-sacrifice. Aspiring to expand the ideological expressiveness of his images, Kramskoi created art that existed on the cusp of portraiture and genre-painting ("Nekrasov during the period of 'Last songs,'" 1877-C78; "Unknown Woman," 1883; "Inconsolable grief," 1884; all in Tretyakov gallery). These paintings disclose their subjects' complex and sincere emotions, their personalities and fates. The democratic orientation of Kramskoi's art, his acute critical judgments about it, and his persistent quest for objective public criteria for the evaluation of art exerted an essential influence on the development of democratic art and aesthetics in Russia in the last third of the nineteenth century.

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Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi Old Man with a Crutch oil painting


Old Man with a Crutch
Painting ID::  71876
Artist: Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
Painting: Old Man with a Crutch
Introduction: 1872(1872) Oil on canvas 76.5 x 57.5 cm (30.12 x 22.64 in)
   
   
     

Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi I. N. Kramskoy. D. I. Mendeleev. oil painting


I. N. Kramskoy. D. I. Mendeleev.
Painting ID::  72667
Artist: Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
Painting: I. N. Kramskoy. D. I. Mendeleev.
Introduction: I. N. Kramskoy. D. I. Mendeleev. 1878. Oil cjr
   
   
     

Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi Old Man with a Crutch oil painting


Old Man with a Crutch
Painting ID::  73155
Artist: Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
Painting: Old Man with a Crutch
Introduction: Date 1872(1872) Medium Oil on canvas Dimensions 76.5 X 57.5 cm (30.12 X 22.64 in) cyf
   
   
     

Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi Portrait of the painter Ivan Shishkin oil painting


Portrait of the painter Ivan Shishkin
Painting ID::  86377
Artist: Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
Painting: Portrait of the painter Ivan Shishkin
Introduction: Date 1873(1873) Medium Oil on canvas Dimensions Deutsch: 110,5 x 78 cm cjr
   
   
     

Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi The Mermaids oil painting


The Mermaids
Painting ID::  95056
Artist: Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
Painting: The Mermaids
Introduction: 1871(1871) Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 88 x 132 cm cyf
   
   
     

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     (June 8 (O.S. May 27), 1837 ?C April 6 (O.S. March 24), 1887; was a Russian painter and art critic. He was an intellectual leader of the Russian democratic art movement in 1860-1880. Kramskoi came from a poor petty-bourgeois family. From 1857 to 1863 he studied at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts; he reacted against academic art and was an initiator of the "revolt of fourteen" which ended with the expulsion from the Academy of a group of its graduates, who organized the Artel of Artists Influenced by the ideas of the Russian revolutionary democrats, Kramskoi asserted the high public duty of the artist, principles of realism, and the moral substance and nationality of art. He became one of the main founders and ideologists of the Company of Itinerant Art Exhibitions (or Peredvizhniki). In 1863-1868 he taught at the drawing school of a society for the promotion of applied arts. He created a gallery of portraits of important Russian writers, scientists, artists and public figures (Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy, 1873, Ivan Shishkin, 1873, Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov, 1876, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, 1879, Sergei Botkin, 1880) in which expressive simplicity of composition and clarity of depiction emphasize profound psychological elements of character. Kramskoi's democratic ideals found their brightest expression in his portraits of peasants, which portrayed a wealth of character-details in representatives of the common people. In one of Kramskoi's most well known paintings, Christ in the Desert (1872, Tretyakov gallery), he continued Alexander Ivanov's humanistic tradition by treating a religious subject in moral Cphilosophical terms. He imbued his image of Christ with dramatic experiences in a deeply psychological and vital interpretation, evoking the idea of his heroic self-sacrifice. Aspiring to expand the ideological expressiveness of his images, Kramskoi created art that existed on the cusp of portraiture and genre-painting ("Nekrasov during the period of 'Last songs,'" 1877-C78; "Unknown Woman," 1883; "Inconsolable grief," 1884; all in Tretyakov gallery). These paintings disclose their subjects' complex and sincere emotions, their personalities and fates. The democratic orientation of Kramskoi's art, his acute critical judgments about it, and his persistent quest for objective public criteria for the evaluation of art exerted an essential influence on the development of democratic art and aesthetics in Russia in the last third of the nineteenth century.